陔夢瓷馮ㄩ汜怓夤萸

鬲豐﹞坰囀杻

COVID-19湮霜俴樟哿婓岍賜捃厒雞晊ㄛ奧囮諷秶〞〞壺賸衄虳弊模ㄛ婓笢弊腔湍雄狟ㄛ涴虳弊模枑彆剿華ㄗ壽瑩俶華ㄘ粒賸諷秶渠囥砦蛂賸砮ㄛ甜峈涴笱錶酕疑賸岈珂袧掘﹝鍚珨源醱ㄛ郔湮腔淉葬囮昫懂赻埮熔挶睿杻檄脹衵秫鏍氯翋砱氪鍰絳腔淉葬ㄛ妗暱奻坻蠅珂岆喃絞瓷馮瘁氪ㄛ婓坻蠅腔俴峈妏腕杅坋勀祥斛猁華犮汜綴ㄛ坻蠅掩喧喧創COVID-19岆旆笭哏赲﹝

 

扂蠅斛剕隴ㄛ涴笱霜俴瓷岆扂蠅醱還腔汜怓峉儂腔郪傖窒煦ㄛ斛剕涴欴艘渾睿揭燴﹝霜俴瓷祥硐岆肮奀楷汜腔﹝

 

霜俴瓷迵華奻坳汜湔峉儂ㄛ瞰拹ㄗ杻梗岆漆栥ㄘ﹜曹轡睿緊髦觴﹜昜笱湮寞耀鏢橈﹜筏阨峉儂ㄛ眕摯梨裔趙睿漆醱奻汔珨欴哏赲覂濬﹝涴珨湮霜俴瓷迵涴虳哏赲珨ㄛ毀茬堤賸濬岍ㄗAnthropocene〞〞珨跺蚕濬勤華腔荌砒奧隅砱腔華窐奀測﹝

 

涴笱峉玸腔"換俶"撞瓷腔霜俴岆珨砐泔桵ㄛ硐衄訧埭謎疑腔﹜扦頗睿冪撳淉習俇囡腔淉葬符夔茼勤﹝赻蚕庈部﹜苤弊﹜陔赻蚕翋砱﹜訧掛翋砱珨眻惟繞堤嘐衄腔祡韜腔毀雄砩妎倛怓﹝婓涴笱錶狟ㄛ憤衵砩妎倛怓伀侚腔掀都嗣﹝

 

婓荎弊ㄛ豌爵譙﹞褪掀塋ㄗJeremy Corbynㄘ腔夤萸 〞〞 眕摯偌桽馱絨恁撼哫晟腔砩佷 〞〞 婓怹汜睿扦頗督昢源醱剒猁湮講芘訧ㄛ腕善賸珆翍痐隴﹝婓爛腔噥恁魂雄笢ㄛ陸虷坻ㄗ眕摯藝弊腔皎攝﹞氿肅佴ㄘ岆郔綴珨跺豪氪腔衵秫尪ㄛ坻蠅祥躺掩妘晟ㄛ遜掩湮薯芢俴坻蠅畬障腔勍嗣淉習﹝褪掀塋澄厥涴珨萸岆橈勤淏腔﹝

 

鴃奪涴珨峈酘巖斐婖賸笭猁儂頗〞〞呴覂翌跦摩极翋砱睿扦頗芶賦腔倓〞〞筍婓扂艘懂ㄛ踏峈砦ㄛ勤瓷馮腔毀茼羶衄湛善梓袧﹝

 

酘巖淏華硌孮淉葬羶衄袧掘ㄛ俴雄喧懂ㄛ絳祡杅祥斛猁腔侚厗﹝酘巖淏華蠶瓚賸訧掛翋砱秶僅ㄛ秪峈訧掛翋砱秶婖扦頗沭璃ㄛ涴笱霜俴瓷夔劂湮佹霜俴﹝酘巖遜髑僻訧掛翋砱勤華腔拹ㄛ馱珛趙觼珛ㄛ興極伬輿ㄛ輓洘華ㄛ眕摯祡妏珧汜睿拲欱腔雄昜汜瓷﹝

 

酘巖淏華硌堤ㄗ婓荎弊ㄘ10爛懂悵忐絨/赻蚕鏍翋絨匎砩睿障鏢俶腔祅熬羲盓ㄛ妏腕荎弊扦頗眢忳善涴笱峉玸腔湮霜俴瓷腔夼漲﹝酘巖孮賸埮熔挶淉葬鍔笰洘腔拸夔﹜溢郫ㄗ睿扦頗湛嫌恅翋砱氪ㄘ腔极轎砮淉習﹜婓壽瑩奀覦腔聆彸脹撰蔥腴〞〞眕摯帤夔砃杅啃勀弊鏍悵翩炵苀ㄗNHSㄘ睿扦頗誘燴馱釬氪枑鼎價掛腔寰汜悵誘扢掘﹝

 

肮欴隴珆腔岆ㄛ涴珨霜俴瓷勤冪撳腔荌砒蔚岆操湮腔﹝腴彶﹜爛﹜窪﹜痄鏍睿躓馱蔚忳善絃奩﹜嬴虛﹜嬴勘﹜錨忮妀睿堍怀督昢脹珛給敕腔麥笭湖僻﹝岈妗奻ㄛ腴彶氪婓眒冪壽敕腔俴珛馱釬腔褫夔俶岆詢彶氪腔捷﹝跦擂笙淉旃噶垀腔訧蹋ㄛ煦眳珨腔菁脯尪笢ㄛ衄10%腔馱釬婓忳婐郔旆笭腔窒藷ㄛ奧婓彶懈衾10%腔笢ㄛ藩20跺腔笢硐衄1ㄗ5%ㄘ婓忳婐郔旆笭腔窒藷﹝[1]

 

衄珨虳酘巖腔謎疑砒茼ㄛ筍湔婓恀枙﹝扂蠅釬峈酘巖汜怓悝模ㄛ祥夔ㄗ麼祥茼蜆ㄘ參扂蠅勤涴珨霜俴瓷ㄗ麼湮霜俴瓷ㄘ腔煦昴蔥跡ㄛ硐蠶瓚跪弊淉葬勤霜俴瓷珨筒楷釬睡釬堤喃煦ㄗ麼坳ㄘ砒茼﹝涴呥竭笭猁ㄛ筍祥岆跦掛腔﹝

 

扂蠅腔萸斛剕岆涴虳瓷埻极郔場懂赻闡爵ㄛ岆妦繫棻妏傖峈霜俴瓷ㄛ眕摯峈妦繫涴虳恀枙埣懂埣楛﹝扂蠅斛剕秶隅啊迕涴笱霜俴瓷腔桵謹ㄛ扂蠅斛剕枒蹦ㄛ彆扂蠅猁婓踏綴熬屾涴笱霜俴瓷湍懂腔瑞玸ㄛ斛剕輛俴妦繫欴腔扦頗曹賂﹝

 

 

 

湮霜俴瓷祥岆陔輪符衄腔

涴岆淩腔ㄛ湮霜俴瓷ㄗ睿霜俴俶撞瓷ㄘ眒冪湔婓賸竭酗奀潔﹝湮埮12000爛ㄛ觼珛腔楷桯ㄛ絳祡諳湮講崝樓ㄛ霜俴瓷呴眳堤珋﹝婓暠轂奀測ㄛ霜俴瓷腔換ㄛ秪諳躇僅祥詢奧忳善癹秶﹝

 

藝弊濬悝模潭釬模樂爵肅﹞渴蟹肅ㄗJared Diamondㄘ婓▲蘿﹜瓷歷迵詩沺ㄩ濬扦頗腔韜堍◎ㄗGuns, Germs, and Steelㄘ珨抎笢涴欴硌堤ㄩ"ㄗ諳ㄘ腔儅濛宎衾湮埮1勀爛觼珛腔倓ㄛ綴呴覂傑庈腔慒奧樓厒〞〞涴宎衾撓爛﹝坻諉覂佽ㄩ"峈妦繫觼珛腔倓頗雄換瓷腔栳曹ˋ試符枑善腔珨跺埻秪岆ㄛ觼珛掀暠轂氪擄摩腔諳躇僅猁詢腕嗣 〞〞 歙詢堤10100捷﹝森俋ㄛ暠轂粒摩氪冪都蛌痄茠華ㄛ奧觼鏍隅懈ㄛ汜魂婓赻撩擄摩腔拹阨笢ㄛ植奧峈峚汜昜枑鼎植珨沭辦豎源宒ㄛ植珨跺腔旯极痄善鍚珨跺腔窊蚚阨爵﹝

 

輛珨祭佽ㄩ"彆佽觼珛腔倓絳祡峚汜昜腔鷥痕楛栲ㄛ傑庈腔慒憩載樓賸﹝蚕衾諳載樓躇摩ㄛ婓填輾腔怹汜沭璃狟ㄛ蠅汜魂沭璃珩填趙...鍚珨跺楛岆岍賜籀眢繚盄腔楷桯ㄛ婓蹕鎮奀測ㄛ涴虳瑤盄衄虴華蔚韁粔﹜捚粔睿控藝腔諳磁甜峈峚汜昜腔珨跺操湮腔楛硈華﹝[2]

 

菴珨棒衄暮翹腔湮霜俴瓷ㄗ扷砮ㄘ岆"樂佴矷腔恔砮"ㄛ楷汜婓蹕鎮銘著樂佴矷珨岍腔苀笥狟ㄛ奀潔婓鼠啋541爛祫542爛ㄛ問梩穸陲蹕鎮著弊﹝饒珨部霜俴瓷杻梗湖僻賸澱尪拊間惜ㄛ筍珩湖僻賸華笢漆笚峓腔坳誠諳傑庈﹝饒珨部霜俴瓷岆扷砮ㄛ珨爛囀秏鏢賸2500勀祫5000勀﹝窪侚瓷ㄗ珨笱甮扷砮ㄘ婓1346爛祫1352爛潔伀侚賸韁粔侐煦眳珨腔諳﹝傑庈趙睿韁粔傑庈腔崝酗鍔腕眕楷桯ㄛ笢珨虳傑庈囮賸詢湛70%腔諳﹝涴虳傑庈眳潔籀眢蝠籵腔楷桯ㄛ妏腕恀枙曹腕趙﹝

 

菴珨棒岍賜湮桵賦旰奀ㄛ昹啤挴霜覜ㄗ渣昫腔韜靡ㄘ砮絳祡2100勀侚厗﹝蜆霜覜婓昹窒盄茧撥祥膩﹜撞瓷莊旯腔桵瑣笢鑠郤ㄛ綴蚕葩埜窒勦湍隙模﹝涴笱霜覜珩撿衄輓杻窐ㄛ秪峈珨桵潔腔襄妘傻輛珨祭祅賸馱論撰ㄛ蚧岆婓桵憩汜魂婓嬪笢腔馱論撰﹝

 

乾肅貌﹞梐馨楷珋籟飩褫眕啎滅毞豪ㄛ絳祡賸砮醮諉笱ㄛ菴珨棒堤珋賸眕瓟谿忒僇勤蕨峉玸霜俴瓷腔褫夔﹝1959爛ㄛ岍賜怹汜郪眽ㄗWHOㄘ楷賸珨部跦壺毞豪腔湮寞耀堍雄﹝1980爛ㄛ哫票毞豪眒冪跦壺ㄛ涴岆踏峔珨掩跦壺腔濬撞瓷﹝

 

鴃奪珋測瓟悝婓20岍槨倓ㄛ奧ㄛ踏毞ㄛ湮嗣杅瓷埻极梩奻瑞ㄛ憩珋測濬腔帤懂奧晟ㄛ踏毞掀盪妢奻睡奀潔飲載峉玸﹝

 

 

恀枙腔跦埭

植涴跺褒僅懂艘ㄛ酘巖茼蜆枑堤眕狟恀枙ㄩ

 

- 涴笱瓷埻极ㄛ杻梗岆"雄昜"瓷埻极 〞〞 撞瓷﹜瓷馮﹜牉歷睿敵汜單 〞〞 珨羲宎岆睡輻徹昜笱煦濬ㄛ植珧汜雄昜換善濬奧莉汜腔ˋ

 

- 珨筒楷汜蝠脫埣賜ㄛ涴笱霜俴瓷腔雄薯岆妦繫ˋ

 

- 峈妦繫婓20岍槨ㄛ涴笱霜俴瓷曹腕載樓楛睿峉玸ㄛ峈妦繫涴笱岊厥哿善21岍槨奻珔 〞〞 鴃奪珋測瓟悝贗薯塊秶ˋ

 

- 峈賸熬屾涴笱霜俴瓷腔褫夔俶睿荌砒ㄛ斛剕輛俴闡虳扦頗曹賂ˋ

 

扂峈ㄛ衄侐跺翋猁秪匼芢雄涴笱錶﹝

 

菴珨ㄩ趙

菴珨跺秪匼岆趙ㄛ祥躺岆岍賜冪撳ㄛ遜衄淕跺濬魂雄ㄛ湮寞耀堍怀〞〞弊囀睿弊暱〞〞峈瓷埻极睿霜俴瓷枑鼎賸詢厒換畦湍ㄩ杻梗岆瑤諾藏俴﹝跦擂弊暱鏍瑤郪眽ㄗICAOㄘ腔訧蹋ㄛ2018爛隅瑤啤傚諦軞杅峈43砬棒ㄛ掀奻珨爛崝樓6.4%2018爛ㄛ瑤啤滄杅醴湛善3780勀啤棒ㄛ崝酗3.5%

 

菴媼ㄩ扂蠅迵湮赻腔壽炵祥褫諉忳

釬峈汜怓扦頗翋砱氪ㄛ扂蠅斛剕擇橈扂蠅ㄗ釬峈珋測濬ㄘ迵華奻坳赻湔婓昜腔俇祥夔諉忳腔壽炵﹝岈妗奻ㄛ荌砒岆操湮腔﹝

 

2016爛撫▲濬悝蹦◎奻楷桶腔枙峈※昜燴撮扲腔寞耀睿嗣欴俶ㄩ華窐劓§ 腔旃噶蹦恅笢ㄛ勤涴笱荌砒ㄛ酕賸倳腔嘛數﹝涴岆25靡褪悝模苤郪腔馱釬ㄛ笢婦嬤應佴杻湮悝ㄗLeicester Universityㄘ腔栨﹞崨嶺昹峎ㄗJan Zalasiewiczㄘㄛ坻岆蜆恅腔籵捅釬氪﹝恅梒桶隴ㄛ垀彖腔昜燴撮扲軞講〞〞撈絞測濬扦頗腔昜窐莉堤/昜燴價插扢囥/煙昜ㄗ瞰嶼僵沓鎚部ㄘ腔軞睿ㄛ婦嬤楷萇桴﹜耋繚﹜膘耟昜﹜陬謙﹜呿蹋脹ㄛ眈絞衾30勀砬勣 〞〞 撈藩跺魂4000勣﹝

 

壽衾緊曹趙勤峉玸湮霜俴瓷腔荌砒ㄛ蚕豌譟﹞掛肅嫌ㄗJem Bendellㄘ婓痔諦奻腔珨恅梒笢抶善ㄛ坻岆▲旮僅巠茼ㄩ絳瑤緊扈曄華芞◎ㄗ2018爛ㄘ腔釬氪﹝坻峈ㄛ緊曹趙淏妏濬載眢覜涴笱瓷馮睿坳瓷馮﹝

 

坻峈ㄩ"蔥迾睿恲僅腔酗曹趙﹜曹祑俶腔崝樓睿撫誹腔曹趙ㄛ勤攷躂睿坳眵掩懂佽岆祥褫厥哿腔﹝涴砩庤覂汜魂婓涴虳汜怓炵苀笢腔壎單睿雄昜淏婓婈忳芫賴﹝汜昜嗣欴俶腔犮囮眒冪岆操湮腔ㄛ扂蠅淏婓冪盪湮寞耀腔珧汜雄昜鏢橈岈璃ㄗ菸陝觕 [Diaz]脹ㄛ2019爛ㄘ﹝纏濬睿譀襝脹珧汜雄昜腔軞杅熬屾ㄛ頗荌砒扂蠅肮撞瓷腔諉揖﹝峈妦繫ˋ蚕衾纏濬睿譀襝脹岆瓷埻极腔"咑翋笱湔揣踱"ㄛ奧纏濬睿譀襝腔杅講誕屾ㄛ饒繫瓷埻极腔襯僅睿髦磁俶厘厘載詢ㄗ蚕衾疻換嗣欴俶蔥腴睿載眢換畦腔埻秪ㄘ﹝涴崝樓賸唒僕遞換瓷勤濬腔"祛堤瑞玸"ㄗ除恅佴Evans脹ㄛ2020爛ㄘ﹝[3]

 

涴岆珨跺衄佽督薯腔蹦萸﹝跪笱雄昜ㄛ珧汜腔睿拲趙腔ㄛ婓馱珛寞耀奻掩濬酈渾ㄛ杻梗岆婓馱珛趙觼珛源醱 --- 蚧岆濬汜莉 --- 峈雄昜瓷馮換跤濬斐婖賸郔槽沭璃﹝輪測盪妢奻濬腔珨虳翋猁伀忒〞〞毞豪﹜霜覜﹜賦瞄瓷﹜鑄撞﹜鎊淟睿齊觴〞〞岆植雄昜蝠脫輛趙奧懂腔ㄛ筍珋婓湮嗣擁癹衾濬﹝

 

踏毞ㄛ藩爛衄700砬硐翻華雄昜ㄗ祥婦嬤赶濬ㄘㄛ厘厘婓填輾腔沭璃狟掩芡婟ㄛ眕鼎濬妘蚚﹝涴珨杅趼婓徹50爛笢楹賸珨楓ㄛ善2050爛蔚婬楹珨楓﹝笢煦眳媼腔雄昜岆籵徹摩埮趙源楊侞欱腔ㄛ麼氪侞欱婓籀眢笢垀彖腔※摩笢趙雄昜侞庣部§ㄗconcentrated animal feeding operationsㄛ潠備CAFOsㄘ﹝

 

掛肅嫌ㄗBendellㄘ垀莠扴腔偶瞰ㄛ竭褫夔岆Covid-19偶腔珨窒煦﹝奧ㄛ婓扂艘懂ㄛ鍚珨跺秪匼郔笝載撿衄樵隅俶ㄩ涴憩岆濬昜笱掛旯腔杅講睿躇僅﹝

 

 

菴ㄩ傑庈趙睿諳躇僅

擂岍籀郪眽ㄗWTOㄘ備ㄛ踏毞腔COCID-19湮霜俴腔埭芛ㄗ掛肅嫌珩諉忳ㄘㄛ擂陓岆挕犖諳喱躇腔"漆珅庈部"ㄛ婓饒爵ㄛ嗣笱雄昜〞〞硫雄昜﹜赶濬睿纏濬〞〞侚腔睿魂腔ㄛ婦嬤籵都祥頗婓珨腔昜笱ㄛ湮講擄摩婓珨揭﹝迵森肮奀ㄛ垀衄涴珨楷汜婓珨跺諳躇僅竭湮腔傑庈ㄛ涴虳秪匼侔綱賦磁婓珨ㄛ峈昜笱潔換畦瓷馮斐婖賸郔槽沭璃﹝

 

COVID-19埭衾譀襝觓湍腔瓷馮ㄛ涴笱瓷馮妏蚚援刓樅釬峈徹傾昜笱砃濬曹祑〞〞涴謗笱昜笱飲婓庈部奻堤忮ㄛ甜婓珋部輛俴芡婟﹝2002爛ㄛSARS瓷馮珩岆珨笱摹俶網柲炵苀軘磁痌ㄛ婓笢弊譀襝笢肮欴霜俴ㄛ掩峈眒冪籵徹彆赽燥砃濬換畦﹝

 

瓷埻极婓泐埲昜笱眳綴ㄛ剒猁郔腴蓒硉腔濬諳躇僅符夔汜湔﹝樂爵肅﹞渴蟹肅ㄗJared Diamondㄘ硌堤ㄛ輪擒燭諉揖腔諳彆屾衾50勀ㄛ鎊淟飲褫夔頗鏢橈﹝鎊淟腔錶迵岍賜坳換瓷珨欴﹝

 

岍賜跪弊淉葬醴淏婓妗俴腔扦蝠潔路淉習ㄛ暫創諳躇僅垀楷閨腔釬蚚ㄛ衱彸芞梑善婃奀腔"賤樵域楊"﹝淏臟埮庈酗掀嫌﹞肅﹞票嶺昹兜ㄗBill de Blasioㄘ郔輪垀佽ㄛ呴覂COVID-19瓷瞰腔崝嗣ㄛ臟埮庈傖峈藝弊湮霜俴腔笢陑ㄩ※扂蠅腔菩岆諳躇僅ㄩ扂蠅徹炰辣諳躇僅ㄛ珋婓淏婓伀侚扂蠅﹝§

 

控藝岆華奻傑庈趙最僅郔湮腔華ㄛ82%腔諳懈蛂婓傑庈華ㄛ奧捚粔埮峈50%腔懈蛂婓傑庈ㄛ準粔湮嗣杅岆婓觼游華ㄛ2018爛衄43%腔諳懈蛂婓傑庈華ㄗ薊磁弊ㄛ2018爛ㄘ﹝

 

21岍槨場ㄛ傑庈諳閉徹賸華奻腔觼游諳﹝赻饒奀眕懂ㄛ藩爛諳崝酗腔煦眳媼ㄛ撈7000勀諳ㄛ湮倰﹜操倰睿閉撰傑庈祥剿崝酗﹝踏毞ㄛ55%腔諳妗珋傑庈趙ㄛ啎數善2040爛蔚奻汔善68% 秪森ㄛ壺準扂蠅袧掘輛俴笭湮曹賂ㄛ瘁寀20岍槨岆峈換瓷湮霜俴奧講旯隅酕腔﹝

 

婓▲憤傷傑庈ㄗExtreme Citiesㄘ◎笢ㄛ陝妦瞳﹞耋伬ㄗAshley Dawsonㄘ硌堤ㄛ1900爛祫2013爛潔ㄛ籵徹傑庈趙睿杻湮傑庈腔堤珋ㄛ諳躇僅堈堈閉徹杅講崝酗﹝[4] 呥婓森潔諳寞耀崝酗賸4.5捷ㄛ植15砬崝祫70砬ㄛ筍傑庈窒煦植2.25砬崝樓善36砬ㄛ崝酗賸16捷﹝

 

菴侐ㄩ湮傑庈

辦厒腔傑庈趙湍懂賸埣懂埣湮/杻湮腔傑庈〞〞掀挕犖ㄛ饒爵岆夢袨瓷馮腔楷珋華ㄛ衄1100勀懈鏍〞〞眈絞衾豐嗟睿皎隴熔腔軞睿﹝湮傑庈祥躺齬溫賸湮窒煦腔媼欬趙抯ㄛ奧峈湮霜俴瓷腔楷桯枑鼎賸郔衄瞳腔沭璃﹝

 

岍賜奻衄33跺杻湮傑庈ㄗ諳閉徹1000勀ㄘㄛ啎數善2030爛蔚崝祫43跺﹝笢衄21跺閉撰傑庈ㄛ茧衄閉徹2000勀懈鏍ㄛ婦嬤陲儔筵梆ㄛ3790勀ㄛ捇樓湛3000勀﹝肅爵2930勀ㄛ忑嫌2610勀ㄛ奻漆2540勀ㄛ縐嶺2430勀ㄛ臟埮庈峈2360勀ㄛ蘋昹貊傑峈2220勀﹝

 

涴虳傑庈婓扦頗睿冪撳奻岆嗣欴趙腔﹝衄虳冪撳珂輛ㄛ汜魂阨詢ㄛ鼠僕督昢謎疑;坳寀峈嫘湮腔嬪麟誧﹝奧ㄛ坻蠅衄珨跺僕肮萸﹝詢躇僅ㄛ妏坻蠅載眢忳善峉玸瓷埻极腔換﹝臟埮憩岆醴腔瞰赽﹝

 

闐親﹞渴峎佴ㄗMike Davisㄘ婓▲鏍貓陎◎笢涴欴鏡扴ㄩ"濬郔笝膘扢ㄗ諳崝酗ㄘ腔95%蔚楷汜婓楷桯笢弊模腔傑庈華ㄛ諳蔚婓狟珨測崝樓珨捷ㄛ湛善輪40砬﹝岈妗奻ㄛ笢弊﹜荂僅睿匙昹腔傑庈諳樓懂眒冪湮祡眈絞衾韁粔睿控藝﹝森俋ㄛ菴岍賜傑庈趙腔寞耀睿厒僅ㄛ峎嗣瞳捚奀測腔韁粔俇眈倛獗袛﹝1910爛腔豐嗟岆1800爛腔7捷ㄛ筍踏毞腔湛縐﹜踢狦伈睿嶺跪佴飲掀1950爛湮賸湮埮侐坋捷﹝笢弊〞〞眕濬盪妢奻垀帤衄腔厒僅傑庈趙〞〞20岍槨80爛測崝樓賸掀淕跺19岍槨韁粔ㄗ婦嬤塘蹕佴ㄘ載嗣腔傑庈懈鏍﹝[5]

 

勤衾鏍貓郖腔孺湮ㄛ涴砩庤覂妦繫ㄛ壽衾涴萸ㄛ渴峎佴堔竘1903爛薊磁弊懈扰腔惆豢ㄛ蜆惆豢腔賦蹦岆ㄛ譁鎗ㄗMumbaiㄘ岆岍賜鏍貓懈蛂眳飲ㄛ衄1000勀祫1200勀鏍貓懈鏍﹝棒岆蘋昹貊傑睿湛縐ㄛ跪衄900勀祫1000勀ㄛ棒岆嶺跪佴﹜羲蹕﹜縐嶺﹜踢狦伈﹜吤悵蹕﹜奻漆睿肅爵ㄛ跪衄600勀祫800勀﹝

 

賦蹦

菴珨璃岈岆ㄛ揭婓珨跺韌爵;礿砦阼橢﹝

 

聾蛌傑庈趙睿諳躇僅腔徹最甜準眢岈ㄛ筍扂蠅斛剕羲宎枒蹦﹝釬峈汜怓扦頗翋砱氪ㄛ涴砩庤覂蔚褫厥哿腔華离衾扂蠅珨馱釬腔瞄陑﹝涴砩庤覂迵赻腔陔壽炵睿陔腔扦頗耀宒ㄛ旌轎絳祡載湮腔傑庈睿載嗣腔拹﹝涴砩庤覂纔掩纔腔扦頗ㄛ測眳眕珨跺涴欴腔扦頗ㄛ涴跺扦頗蕾逋衾峈妗蚚奧祥岆峈瞳輛俴腔汜莉﹝

 

涴珩砩庤覂恛隅諳崝酗﹝砩庤覂盓厥蜀躓腔恁寁ㄛ撈鳳腕旌婕睿園怚扢囥腔瞳ㄛ眕摯毀勤睡秶硒俴腔最唗麼謁狣﹝涴珩砩庤覂盓厥嬪蜀躓啊迕嬪腔須淰ㄛ泔桵跁諒睿坳悵忐岊薯腔荌砒ㄛ虜秶睿跁諒揤薯ㄛ甜跤軑坴蠅喃煦諉忳諒郤睿憩珛腔儂頗﹝ㄗ絞ㄛ恁寁婦嬤汜郤ㄛ衄痐擂桶隴ㄛ彆衄淩淏腔恁寁ㄛ堤汜薹蔚狟蔥﹝ㄘ

涴遜扡摯價插扢囥﹜扂蠅汜魂源宒腔賂韜˙傑庈腔寞耀ㄛ扂蠅藏俴腔源宒ㄛ扂蠅勛妦繫﹝昢潸操ㄛ筍彆扂蠅猁峈華斐婖褫厥哿腔帤懂ㄛ賤樵扂蠅釬峈珋測濬睿拸杅坳濬昜笱眳潔腔穫嗎ㄛ憩梗拸恁寁﹝

 

涴扡摯勍嗣馱釬ㄛ狟醱岆笢珨虳ㄩ

 

l   2030 爛妗珋錨抯齬溫ㄛ茧衄陔腔蟯伎夔埭價插扢囥

l   鼠衄秶腔湮寞耀孺桲

l   礿砦興極伬輿睿輓洘揭

l   聾蛌漆栥拹

l   賦旰馱珛趙觼珛

l   觼珛掛華趙眕誹吽襄妘堍怀爵最

l   屾勛

l   賦旰參珧汜雄昜絞釬唾昜蝠眢﹜賦旰峈秶樑狻麼珧汜奧酕珧汜雄昜蝠眢

l   塊秶瑤諾藏俴腔崝酗ㄛ竘楛滄俴阭

l   湮盟熬屾陬妏蚚ㄛ杻梗岆趙坒蹋陬

 

 

 

蛁庋:

[1] Institute for Fiscal Studies, 6 April 2020 ※Sector shutdowns during the coronavirus crisis: which workers are most exposed?§.

[2] Jared Diamond, Guns Germs and Steel, Vintage, 2005, p.205

[3] Professor Jim Bendell 23 March 2020 ※The Climate for Corona 每 our warming world is more vulnerable to pandemic§.

[4] Ashley Dawson, Extreme Cities, Verso 2017, p.298.

[5] Mike Davis Planet of Slums, London: Verso, 2007.

 

 

 

掛恅祒赻: 弊暱夤萸2020410ㄛhttp://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?page=imprimir_articulo&id_article=6519